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New York: De Gruyter Press. Tsai, Y. Evocation, compassion, and the fusion of affection and the scenery. Tuan, Y. Space and place: The perspective of experience. The University of Minnesota Press. Wuang, S. Taiwan Chung Wa Book Press. Yang, L. This paper studies their similarities in simple sentence, compound and complex sentence, as well as differences in word order and sentence segmentation. The author not only depicts the extravagant life of an emerging industrial city Detroit after WWI, but also depicts the decadent culture after WWI, creating a portrait of the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties.

The version of Wu Ningkun, translated in , is one of the most famous Chinese translation of The Great Gatsby, as well as one of the wildest spread version which has set the tone of later translations; meanwhile, the version of Yao Naiqiang, translated in , has gained its popularity for its distinct language style.

Translation Theory: Functional Equivalence Eugene A.

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Nida, a founder of modern translation theory, proposes Functional Equivalence FE which means that target language TL should be equal to source language SL in lingual function instead of form. In a nutshell, it is safe to summarize his theory into three parts: Moreover, it is beneficial to translation practice. Wu and Yao have many merits in their sentence translations. Simple sentence.


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In simple sentence, Wu and Yao are not flexible enough to change word order which leads to syntactic barricade for TL readers. There are some translations which cannot conform to Chinese linguistic conventions. The example is as follows. Changing subjects can be an effective way in English to Chinese E-C translation.

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When translating, in order to adapt to TL linguistic conventions, translators are supposed to be flexible enough to change word order, especially subjects and objects. Compound and complex sentence. Not only in simple sentence, but also in compound and complex sentence, Wu and Yao also cannot be flexible enough to change word order. They translate the text in verbatim form of The Great Gatsby, which causes syntactic barricade to TL readers. Different from the frequently used passive patterns in English, Chinese rarely make thing subject to constitute a passive sentence.

Too many passive patterns can cause comprehension disorder for Chinese readers. Secondly, there is a mixture of subjects in Chinese version. In accordance with Chinese syntactic rule, there is only one subject in one sentence. For instance, English prefers long and difficult sentences together with various subordinate clauses, while Chinese prefers short and simple sentences. English is a language of hypotaxis which focuses on logic and form, while Chinese is a language of parataxis which focuses on description and meaning.

Therefore, in E-C translation, translators are supposed to be proficient in SL syntax to understand the original text, and be proficient in TL syntax to reproduce the original text in an acceptable way.

Otherwise, TL readers cannot understand the literary work as SL readers do. As a result, the translation fails to achieve FE. This paper exemplifies word order in sentences and segmentation of long sentences as follows: Word order. Changing the word order can cause the variation of emphasis in a sentence, as well as barricade of understanding.

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The examples below demonstrate that different word order can cause the variation of emphasis in a sentence. Moreover, Chinese prefers to put key information at the end of a sentence. The variation of word order changes emphasis of a sentence. Again, this example demonstrates that different word order can change the emphasis of one sentence. In a word, the change of word order can dissimilate the emphasis of a sentence. All examples above show that Wu and Yao have different emphasis in some sentence translations.

And the change of word order can vary the emphasis of a sentence. Sentence segmentation. Different sentence segmentation determines ease of reading. Too little segmentation may make a long sentence cumbersome. Too much segmentation may make a sentence loose. Inappropriate sentence segmentation can cause different syntactic barricade to TL readers. In the original sentence, there are four sense groups: It is hard to find out whether the hall or the great rooms is the subject of the last clause. As for Wu, he combines last two clauses together and makes subject clear.

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Although Wu makes less segmentation, he makes his meaning more clear. The point of making segmentation is to make sense group clear, and Wu does better in this sentence translation. Word order and sentence segmentation are two major differences among their sentence translations. Moreover, it is beneficial to translation practices. On the one hand, Wu and Yao have many merits in their sentence translations.

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For example, they both do well in changing word order and making sentence segmentation. On the other hand, they both make some controversial translations. In simple sentence, Wu and Yao are not flexible enough to change word order, which leads to syntactic barricade for TL readers. They translate the text as the same order of The Great Gatsby in original version, which cannot conform to Chinese linguistic conventions.

It is also conducive to translation practices. Changing word order can cause emphasis of a sentence to change, as well as barricade for TL readers to understand. To sum up, study on similarities and differences can help researchers with exploring whether Wu and Yao have achieved FE. According to Functional Equivalence, the standard of good translation is that the translation work can cause the same reaction as SL readers.

For instance, Chinese prefers person as subject, instead of thing. Moreover, English prefers to put key information at the very beginning of a sentence, while Chinese prefers to put it at the end. Knowing different features of different language is conducive for translator to achieve FE.

Moreover, in sentence translations, if necessary, translators should try to be flexible in changing word order or making sentence segmentation in lines with TL linguistic conventions. Changing word order can vary different emphasis of a sentence, while changing sentence segmentation can make translation easier or more difficult for TL readers. Thus, deliberate choices should be done during the course of translation. In a nutshell, translation is an art which needs diligent effort and abundant background information.

To achieve Functional Equivalence, sentence pattern should be chosen deliberately so that the same reaction of SL readers can be reached by TL readers. References Eugene, N. The theory and practice of translation. Brill Academic Pub. Fitzgerald, F. The Great Gatsby. Yilin Press. WU, N. Shanghai Translation Publishing House.

YAO, N. YE, Z. Tsinghua University Press.

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Scott Fitzgerald at the background of the patriarchal society, Daisy stands for a traditional oppressed woman whereas Jordan represents a new female image in pursuit of freedom and independence. Simultaneously, their images also reveal an inspiring implication for women who want to obtain independence and freedom, only when women break the shackles of patriarchal ideology and gain the independence of economy by unremitting efforts can they completely enjoy the independence of mind as well as the right that they deserve.

Among all his works, the most well-known one is The Great Gatsby published in which established his position in the history of modern American literature and has enjoyed popularity among plenty of scholars until now. This work primarily concerns the tragic love between the well-off man Jay Gatsby and his beautiful former lover Daisy Buchanan.

Equally important, it shapes several distinctive characters, among which Daisy and Jordon are two inevitable characters who represent two kinds of typical women.